maintenance Archives - European Industrial Pharmacists Group (EIPG)

Lessons learnt to transition from Horizon 2020 to the new FP10


by Giuliana Miglierini The European Commission published the ex post evaluation of Horizon 2020 (H2020), the FP8 framework programme for research and innovation (R&I) run in years 2014-2020. The report identifies several areas of possible improvement, which may be taken into Read more

Approvals and flops in drug development in 2023


by Giuliana Miglierini Approvals and flops in drug development in 2023 The European Medicines Agency published its annual highlights, showing 77 medicines were recommended for marketing authorisation, and just 3 received a negative opinion (withdrawals were 19). In 2023 some highly expected Read more

Webinar: Oral Colon Drug Delivery - Design Strategies


EIPG webinar Next EIPG webinar is to be held on Wednesday 21st of February 2024 at 17.00 CET (16.00 GMT) in conjunction with PIER and University College Cork. Anastasia Foppoli, will discuss on the various approaches and the general aspects Read more

Swissmedic’s technical interpretation of Annex 1

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by Giuliana Miglierini

New insights on the interpretation of the new Annex 1 to Good manufacturing practices (GMPs) comes from the Swiss regulatory authority Swissmedic, that at the end of October 2023 published the first revision of its Q&As document (you can find it on the Swissmedicines Inspectorate webpage)

The technical interpretation refers to the revised Annex 1 to the PIC/S GMP Guide (PE 009), adopted on 9 September 2022 and entered into force on 25 August 2023 (with the exception of point 8.123 on lyophilisation, which will enter into force on 25 August 2024). The Q&As follow the same scheme and chapters of Annex 1.

Scope and Premises

According to Swissmedic, for certain types of advanced medicinal products (e.g. ATMPs or allogenic and autologous cell therapy products) specific considerations are required with respect to the fact they cannot be terminally sterilised or filtered. The unsterile patient material should also be considered. Requirements of Annex 2A, paragraph 5.29(b) should be followed for aseptic processing, that should be maintained from the time of procurement of cells through manufacturing and administration back into the patient.

Exceptions to the application of Annex 1 need to be always justified: the Contamination Control Strategy (CCS) is the appropriate tool to detail all risk analysis performed on the basis of the specific manufacturing processes under consideration.

As for the Premises, segregated unidirectional flow airlocks for material and personnel for grade A and B cleanrooms are expected in the case of new facilities. Temporary separation of the flows in the airlocks is the minimum requirement for existing facilities, together with a detailed risk analysis to assess the need for additional technical or organisational measures.

The transfer of materials in and out of a critical grade A cleanroom should be based on the careful definition of the technical and procedural measures associated with it. For example, prior introduction of materials in an isolator followed by decontamination is considered possible only for small batches and for materials resistant to VHP treatment. In all other cases, materials have to be sterilised before entering the already sterile isolator. The transfer process is also subject to a risk analysis to be included in the CCS, as well as to measures to control the maintenance of the integrity and functionality of the systems (also with respect to aseptic process simulation, APS).

Swissmedic specifies that the cleanroom sequence for the transfer of materials via airlocks or passthrough hatches is expected to be fulfilled for zones A and B. In the case of the passage from grade A to C, qualification is needed to prove adequacy of the established systems and procedures. The corresponding risk analysis has to be included in the CCS.

Updating equipment to reach full compliance with the new Annex 1 may require high investments. According to the Q&As, older barrier technologies should be subject to an in-depth internal evaluation to assess the need for new technical measures. The document underlines that starting from 25 August 2023 all barrier technologies not compliant with the new Annex 1 are considered deficient, thus companies should start projects to evaluate the upgrading of background cleanrooms and to define CAPA plans and interim measures to reduce risks.

The risk assessment should also include the evaluation of all automated functionalities and processes associated with the use of the isolator and the activities taking place in it. To this instance, Swissmedic highlights that robotic systems may help improving the reproducibility of operations and minimising both errors and manual interventions. Automatic processes are also expected for the decontamination of isolators, while for RABS manual processes might be used, provided they are designed to ensure reproducibility and are subject to validation and regular monitoring. The absence of negative effects on the medicinal product associated to the cleaning or biodecontamination substances used should also be validated.

As for barrier technology systems with unidirectional air flow, air velocity must be defined so that uniform airflow conditions prevail at the working positions where high-risk operations take place. Alternative air speed ranges or measurements at different heights in the system have to be scientifically justified in the CCS.

Utilities and Personnel

The section on Utilities offers additional guidance on systems used for water generation, that should be designed to allow for routine sanitisation and/or disinfection. Procedures are needed to define regular preventive maintenance of the reverse osmosis system, including the regular change of membranes. A suitable sampling schedule should be in place to regularly check water quality. More stringent controls are needed for the sampling of water-for-injection distribution systems, including daily microbial and bacterial endotoxin testing. The monitoring of the process gas should be performed as close as possible before the sterilisation filter.

Adequate training and qualification of all people working in grade A and B areas, including aseptic gowning and aseptic behaviors, is essential. According to Annex 1, this should include an annual successful APS. Swissmedic adds that, even if not explicitly required, practical process simulations, including manual interventions, should be carried out under the supervision of qualified trainers/QA; the company can choose if to integrate these process simulations into the APS.

Production and specific technologies

As for lyophilisation, initial loading patterns must be always validated, and revalidated annually. The Q&As specify cases where revalidation can be skipped, adding that a theoretical reference load is not acceptable. Revalidation has also to include temperature mapping for moist heat sterilisation systems.

Should a closed system be opened, this should be followed by cleaning (if required) and a validated sterilisation process. Alternatively, the system can be opened in a decontaminated isolator; a class A cleanroom with a class B background might be considered only for exceptional cases.

Non-aseptic connections can be carried out for coupling closed systems, provided a validated sterilisation cycle (SIP) occurs prior to use. Sterile aseptic connectors can be used if the supplier was checked and validated; data from the supplier can be used to file the relevant documentation, but handling of these parts has to be included in the APS.

Swissmedic also underlines that piercing a septum with a needle is to be regarded as a breach of the sterile barrier, and thus avoided for ascetic steps. Should this not be possible, temporary measures should be undertaken to prevent contamination.

Tube welding has also to be qualified and validated, and included in the APS if it is part of the aseptic filling process. The advice is to use more reliable systems, to avoid risks of undetected integrity deficiencies.

Critical single use systems (SUS) should always be tested for integrity by the end user on site before they are used in production. In case of difficult to test, small single use systems, the decision not to test their integrity must be justified in the CCS, as well as the decision to make use of test results provided by suppliers. To this instance, Swissmedic underlines that the comprehensive assessment (including quality system, etc.) should cover the SUS manufacturer/ s, as well as any subcontractors involved in critical services or processes.

Furthermore, the intended use of a SUS in the specific manufacturing process represents the basis for setting the respective acceptance criteria. The Q&As also detail the modalities for the visual inspection of SUSs and the possible acceptance of validation data provided by their suppliers.

As for extractables, the end user is expected to assess the data provided by the suppliers in order to define the need for additional evaluation or leachable studies. A redundant filtration step through a sterile sterilising grade filter, to be included as close to the point of fill as possible, is also encouraged, and its absence has to be justified. A risk analysis is required to justify the choice not to include pre-use/post-sterilisation integrity testing (PUPSIT) of sterilising grade filters used in aseptically processes.

Environmental and process monitoring

According to ICH Q9 (R1), the frequency of the risk review should be based on the level of risk determined for the specific process under consideration, as well as on the level of uncertainty of previous assessments. The recommendation of Swissmedic for new plants is to review the risk assessment after the first year of operations, so to take into due consideration the acquired experience. The document also suggests cases where more stringent action limits may be needed, and the type of statistics to be used to establish alert levels.

The use of rapid microbiological methods (RMM) requires validation and demonstration of equivalence with more traditional approaches. Details on the frequency of the interventions and their inclusion in the APS are also discussed, as well as the container/closure configuration and the distinction between liquid filling and lyophilisation.

The APS of campaign manufacturing represents a complex case for Swissmedic, for which the start-of-campaign (including aseptic assemblies if the case) and end-of-campaign studies should be both conducted. The Q&As also confirm that any contaminated unit with a contamination > 0 CFU results in a failed APS and requires the activation of the consequent actions. Production should resume only after completion of a successful revalidation.

Quality control

A university degree or an equivalent diploma in the field of microbiology (or other natural sciences, or medicine) together with a good understanding of the manufacturing processes under consideration are required for the person in charge of supporting the design of manufacturing activities and environmental monitoring.

As for raw materials, the need for microbiological testing should be evaluated taking into consideration their nature and respective use in the process. All specifications should be discussed and justified in the CCS.

Swissmedic also confirms that the bioburden has to be tested on each batch of raw material as incoming control as well as on the compounding solution in which it is formulated before sterile filtration. In the case of products with short shelf life, should an out-of-specification (OOS) event appear after release of the batch, a procedure is needed to inform doctors, patients, and health authorities, and to assess the connected risks and define remediation actions.


PIC/S new guidance documents for GDP inspectors

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By Giuliana Miglierini

Two new guidance documents for GDP inspectors have been issued by the Pharmaceutical Inspection Cooperation Scheme (PIC/S) Expert Circle on GDP, and are available on the PIC/S’ website.

The ‘AideMemoire on the Inspection of Good Distribution Practice for Medicinal Products in the Supply Chain’ (PI 0441) and a ‘Questions & Answers (Q&A) document regarding the PIC/S GDP Guide’ (PS/INF 22/2017) both entered into force on 1 February 2023.

Main contents of the AideMemoire

The AideMemoire aims to support GDP inspectors in the understanding the process of GDP inspections. The document is expected to be used for training and planning of inspections. Its adoption is voluntary, as the PIC/S GDP Guide for inspections is a legally nonbinding document unless it has been declared a legal standard in the jurisdiction of a PIC/S Participating Authority. The AideMemoire addresses inspections in wholesale distribution sites of entities holding a wholesale distribution licence according to national legislation (i.e. including importing, exporting, holding, or supplying distributors), as well as manufacturers performing any distribution activities. GDP inspections should be thorough and conducted under normal operating conditions.

The AideMemoire is organised in the form of 10 tables that could be used by inspectors as check lists of items to be investigated during inspections of manufacturers and wholesale distributors.

The first table addresses general aspects of GDP inspections, such as the accuracy of the Licence/ application in detailing relevant activities and products. Lists of prescription only medicines (POM), sales without prescription (P), or General sales list/Over the counter (GSL) products are some examples, together all other possible items that may be handled by wholesales distributors, including medical gases, products requiring storage at low temperature and controlled drugs according to national laws.

Preliminary activities also include the review of previous inspections and the assessment of corrective/preventative actions (CAPAs) outlined in the company response. Change should also be verified, namely in the case of high risk operations that may affect the risk profile of the organisation.

Table 2 lists items referred to Quality management. Inspectors should check, for example, the availability of procedures and logs for change control and deviation management. Quality Risk Management (QRM) principles should have been applied to outsourced activities, leading to the definition of specific activities falling under GDP rules, approval, auditing of suppliers, etc. An appropriate procedure should be available also for activities referring to Management review and monitoring and QRM.

Issues referring to personnel are discussed in table 3. An organisation chart and job descriptions should be available, the latter reflecting also key responsibilities and indication of Designated Responsible Persons. Inspectors should verify GDP training received by personnel, also with reference to specific aspects such as falsified medicines or temperaturesensitive products. Availability of a regular GDP training programme and training records should be checked. Personnel should have received specific training in SOPs relevant to their role, to be adequately assessed and documented. These should also include aspects relative to health, hygiene and clothing requirements.

The check list referred to Premises and Equipment is detailed in table 4. It includes among others items reflecting segregation requirements (e.g. identification, design and management of segregation areas) for hazardous or radioactive products, falsified medicines, products not authorised for the approved market, expired products, etc.

Cleaning and pest control procedures are also addressed in this section, as well as temperature and environmental controls and the appropriate monitoring of fridge or cold storage conditions. As for the equipment, inspectors should verify planned maintenance and calibration and their respective records. Alarms should also be checked, as well as computerised systems including validation, security and access restrictions. Appropriate qualification and validation procedures should be in place for all relevant equipment according to QRM principles, and risk assessment should be also available.

Table 5 lists all items referring to documentation management, including procedures and records. The qualification and approval of suppliers and customers according to QRM principles is addressed in Table 6, discussing Operations. This section also addresses the availability of goods receipts to be checked against purchase orders, including details of the temperature conditions during transportation and checks at receipt for products with special storage requirements or nonconforming products. Stock rotation according to the First Expiry First Out principle (FEFO) should be verified by inspectors, among items referred to storage. Aspects referring to the security of the premises also fall under this section, as well as the destruction of expired/ obsolete goods. Inspectors should address also picking operations, supply notes and records and procedures for import/export.

Table 7 refers to the management of complaints, returns, suspected falsified medical products and recalls, which should all be handled according to relevant procedures. Requirements and documentation to be verified for outsourced activities are listed in table 8. These include for example the availability of quality agreements, and contracts including clear responsibilities and audits schedules.

Procedures, plans and records referring to selfinspections are listed in table 9. Items to be verified by GDP inspectors include among others the selection of auditors, their training and independence, CAPAs implementation and verification. The last table addresses issues relative to transportation, including planning, outsourcing, temperature monitoring, GDP training of drivers, etc.

Q&As on PIC/S GDP Guide (PE 0111)

The second document published by PIC/S consists in a list of Questions & Answers specifically referred to the PIC/S GDP Guide (PE 0111). Contents are organised in the form of a table detailing the relevant chapter number and title, paragraph number, question and answer. The latter also make reference to other paragraphs of the GDP Guide to be considered. The sequence of topics is similar to that of the previously examined guidance document for inspectors.

Questions referred to Chapter 1 address issues referred to Quality management and Quality system, outsourced activities, management review and monitoring. Effectiveness of the QS, for example, may be measured by inspectors with reference to deviations and CAPA analysis or to the impact of QRM functions. Frequency of periodic review and responsibilities for ensuring GDP compliance of outsourced activities are also addressed.

Personnel and definition of responsibilities, including key positions and delegation, are detailed in Chapter 2, while Q&As referred to Premises and Equipment go deeper in contents of Chapter 3 (i.e. including the definition of “acceptable temperature limits” and use of Mean Kinetic Temperature for monitoring).

The following chapters and related Q&As address the proper management of Documentation (Ch. 4) and Operations (Ch. 5). The later details some aspects of suppliers and customers qualification, storage, picking. The management of complaints, returns and particular categories of medicinal products refers to Chapter 6. As for outsourced activities (Ch. 7), Q&As addresses onsite auditing, while selfinspections are treated in Chapter 8. Q&As referred to Transportation (Ch. 9), for example, refer to national legislations as for the need for the transportation company to hold a wholesaler licence.