sampling Archives - European Industrial Pharmacists Group (EIPG)

Lessons learnt to transition from Horizon 2020 to the new FP10


by Giuliana Miglierini The European Commission published the ex post evaluation of Horizon 2020 (H2020), the FP8 framework programme for research and innovation (R&I) run in years 2014-2020. The report identifies several areas of possible improvement, which may be taken into Read more

Approvals and flops in drug development in 2023


by Giuliana Miglierini Approvals and flops in drug development in 2023 The European Medicines Agency published its annual highlights, showing 77 medicines were recommended for marketing authorisation, and just 3 received a negative opinion (withdrawals were 19). In 2023 some highly expected Read more

Webinar: Oral Colon Drug Delivery - Design Strategies


EIPG webinar Next EIPG webinar is to be held on Wednesday 21st of February 2024 at 17.00 CET (16.00 GMT) in conjunction with PIER and University College Cork. Anastasia Foppoli, will discuss on the various approaches and the general aspects Read more

Draft ICH M13A guideline on bioequivalence open for consultation

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By Giuliana Miglierini

The draft ICH M13A harmonised guideline Bioequivalence for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms” was endorsed by the International Council for Harmonisation on 20 December 2022 and is now open for consultation. Comments can be forwarded until 26 May 2023; publication of the final document is expected by May 2024.

The new guideline will then be implemented as a European guideline, replacing the current EMA guideline on the investigation of bioequivalence (BE) for oral dosage forms. The ICH M13A is the first of a planned series intended to address scientific and technical aspects of study design and data analysis, so to better support BE assessment both during development and post approval. The guideline covers immediate-release (IR) solid oral dosage forms delivering drugs to the systemic circulation (i.e. tablets, capsules, and granules/powders for oral suspension). Different approaches from those suggested in the guideline are possible, provided they are scientifically justified; applicants are thus encouraged to seek the advice of the relevant regulators in order to share a common approach to development.

Key concepts of the M13 series

The determination of bioequivalence to the originator is a fundamental step in the development of generic and biosimilar medicines. BE plays also an important role for some innovator products, as well as for post-approval changes of formulation and/or manufacturing process. BE is determined in terms of bioavailability of the products under comparison after administration, within predefined limits to ensure safety and efficacy. In vivo BE studies for certain orally administered IR solid oral dosage forms can be waived according to the ICH M9 guideline on Biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS)-based biowaiver, which has already superseded Appendix III of the EMA guideline.

The M13A guideline addresses study design containing multiple comparator products or test products, but not the acceptance of comparator products across different regulatory regions, as this greatly varies according to local legislations. The process of regulatory decision making based on BE is also excluded from the guideline.

The planned M13 series should also include the ICH M13B guideline, focused on biowaiver considerations for additional strengths not investigated in BE studies, and ICH M13C discussing data analysis and BE assessment for highly variable drugs, drugs with narrow therapeutic index, and complex BE study design. It should also address data analysis considerations, for example in the case of adaptive BE study design.

Pharmacokinetics (PK) bioequivalence studies and comparative in vitro dissolution studies are the main tools for BE determination for IR solid oral dosage forms with systemic action. These principles can be also applied to other non-orally administered drug products with immediate action (e.g., certain rectal, inhalation, and nasal drug products), provided BE may be derived from measures of systemic exposure.

The ICH E6 guideline on Good Clinical Practice should also be considered while conducting BE studies, in order to ensure the data integrity of all data generated in the trials.

The main contents of the ICH M13A

Chapter 2 of the ICH M13A guideline discusses the general principles to be used for the establishment of bioequivalence. These include the selection of the study population and the choice of the pharmacokinetic endpoint to be used in the BE studies. Healthy subjects should be the preferred choice, unless there are ethical concerns linked to the safety of the pharmaceutical products under assessment. In any case, inclusion and exclusion criteria should always be clearly reported in the study protocol. The main target of BE studies should be the detection of differences in the in vivo release characteristics between the products. Elements to be considered to select the study population are discussed in the draft guideline.

As for the study design, the recommended suggestion is for randomised, single-dose, two-period, two-sequence crossover studies comparing two formulations, as single-dose studies may better detect differences in the rate and extent of absorption. Multiple-dose studies may be conducted in patients should the single-dose design be not affordable for safety/tolerability or ethical reasons. A parallel design may be indicated for drugs with long elimination half-lives, requiring a prolonged washout period. Alternatives are also acceptable upon scientific justification.

The choice of the test product should be also discussed and justified, and it should be representative of the product to be marketed. As for the comparator, the selection of the batches to be used for BE studies should be based on assay content. The strength of the product to be used in the BE study depends on the dose proportionality in PK and solubility of the analyte.

The draft also indicates standardised fasting conditions should be the preferred choice to run BE studies, as they support a better discrimination between the PK profiles of the product and the comparator. Both fasting and fed BE studies should be conducted for high-risk products, due to their complex formulation design or manufacturing process that may impact differently on their in vivo performance, due to different gastrointestinal (GI) conditions. This is the case, for example, of low solubility drug substances formulated in the form of solid dispersions, microemulsions, lipid-based formulations, nanotechnologies, or other specialised technologies.

Analysis of the parent drug should be the preferred choice to demonstrated bioequivalence. Primary metabolites are considered acceptable in the case of pro-drugs which are rapidly eliminated. Stereoselective assays measuring individual enantiomers should be also considered while assessing chiral drugs.

Specific paragraphs address the setting up of sampling, the need to avoid occurrence of Cmax at the first post-dose sampling time point, the possibility to use truncated AUC for drugs with long half-life and considerations on early exposure.

How to analyse and present data

Specific sections of the guideline discuss how to present and report data obtained from BE studies. The study documentation should include the complete evidence of the protocol, conduct, and evaluation, and it should be written according to the ICH E3 guideline Structure and content of clinical study reports”.

Unadjusted, measured drug concentrations in a suitable biological fluid should be always provided for both the product and the originator, for each subject participating in the study. Any deviations should be clearly identified. A suggested list of PK’s parameters to be tabulated for each subject-formulation combination is provided, together with summary statistics to be reported. Not less important is the statistical analysis performed on raw data. To this instance, the model of choice for the analysis should be pre-specified in the study protocol. Cmax and AUC(0-t) should be the preferred PK parameters to establish BE.

Chapter 3 discusses specific topics that may impact on the determination of BE. Among these is the presence of endogenous compounds identical to the drug under evaluation, thus requiring the determination of their baseline concentration in the biological fluids of interest. The draft guideline also specifies that both orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) and chewable tablets should be administered in BE studies according to the comparator product labelling with regard to intake of water. The comparator product labelling should also represent the main reference for BE studies involving tablets, granules, and powders labelled as being only intended to be dispersed in a liquid before administration as an oral suspension. Considerations are also provided for fixed-dose combination products and the dependance of the drug solubility on pH.


The new Annex 21 to GMPs

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by Giuliana Miglierini

The new Annex 21 to GMPs (C(2022) 843 final) that EIPG gave a significant contribution in reviewing the original draft and thoroughly presented it within a webinar to its members on August 2020, was published by the European Commission on 16 February 2022; the document provides a guideline on the import of medicinal products from extra-EU countries. The new annex will entry into force six months after its publication, on 21 August 2022. Its contents should be read in parallel with the EU Guide to Good Manufacturing Practice for Medicinal Products and its other annexes, those requirements continue to apply as appropriate.

Annex 21 details the GMP requirements referred to human, investigational and/or veterinary medicinal products imported in the European Union and European Economic Area (EEA) by holders of a Manufacturing Import Authorisation (MIA). The new Annex does not apply to medicinal products entering the EU/EEA for export only, as they do not undergo any process or release aimed to place them on the internal market. Fiscal transactions are also not considered as a part of the new annex.

The main principles

According to Annex 21, once a batch of a medicinal product has been physically imported in a EU/EEA country, including clearance by the custom authority of the entrance territory, it is subject to the Qualified Person (QP) certification or confirmation. Manufacturing operations in accordance with the marketing authorisation or clinical trial authorisation can be run on imported bulk and intermediate products prior to the QP certification/confirmation. To this regard, all importation responsibilities for both medicinal products and bulks/intermediates must be carried out at specific sites authorised under a MIA. These include the site of physical importation and the site of QP certification (for imported medicinal products) or QP confirmation (for bulk or intermediate products undergoing further processing).

Marketing authorisation holders (MAHs) for imported products authorised in the EU remain in any case the sole responsible for placing the products in the European/EEA market. Annex 21 requires sites responsible for QP certification to verify an ongoing stability program is in place at the third country site where manufacturing is performed. This last one has to transmit to the QP all the information needed to verify the ongoing product quality, and relevant documentation (i.e. protocols, results and reports) should be available for inspection at the site responsible for QP certification. QP’s responsibilities also extend to the verification that reference and retention samples are available in accordance to Annex 19 of the GMPs, and that safety features are placed on the packaging, if required.

Importation sites should be adequately organised and equipped to ensure the proper performance of activities on imported products. More specifically, a segregated quarantine area should be available to store the incoming products until the occurrence of release for further processing or QP certification/confirmation.

European GMP rules or equivalent standards shall be followed for the manufacturing of medicinal products in third countries due to be imported in the EU. The manufacturing process has to comply to the one described in the Marketing Authorisation (MA), the clinical trial authorization (CTA) and the relevant quality agreement in place between the MAH and the manufacturer. The respect of EU GMP rules or equivalent standards should be documented through regular monitoring and periodic on-site audits of the third country manufacturing sites, to be implemented by the site responsible for QP certification or by a third party on its behalf.

The QP of the importation site is also responsible for the verification of testing requirements, in order to confirm the compliance of the imported products to the authorised specifications detailed in the MA. The verification of testing requirements can be avoided only in the case a Mutual Recognition Agreement (MRA) or an Agreement on conformity assessment and acceptance of industrial products (ACAA) is in place between the European Union and the third country where the production of the medicinal product is located.

All agreements between the different entities involved in the manufacturing and importation process, including the MAH and/or sponsor, should be in the written form, as indicated by Chapter 7 of the EU GMP Guide.

The Pharmaceutical Quality System of the importing site

According to the European legislation (Chapter 1 of the EU GMP Guide), all activities performed in the EU with reference to the manufacturing and distribution of pharmaceutical products should fall under to umbrella of the company’s Pharmaceutical Quality System (PQS). This is also true for sites involved with importation activities, those PQS should reflect the scope of the activities carried out. A specific procedure should be established to manage complaints, quality defects and product recalls.

More in detail, the new Annex 21 establishes that sites responsible for QP certification of imported products (including the case of further processing before export with the exception of investigational medicinal products) have to run periodic Product Quality Reviews (PQR). In this case too, the respective responsibilities of the parties involved in compiling the Reviews should be specified by written agreements. Should the sampling of the imported product be conducted in a third country (in accordance with Annex 16 of the GMPs), the the PQR should also include an assessment of the basis for continued reliance on the sampling practice. A review of deviations encountered during transportation up to the point of batch certification should be also available, and a comparison should be run to assess the correspondence of analytical results from importation testing with those listed by the Certificate of Analysis generated by the third country manufacturer.

Full documentation available at MIA sites

The QP’s certification/confirmation step for an imported batch has to be paralleled by the availability of the full batch documentation at the corresponding MIA holder’s site; in case of need, this site may also have access to documents supporting batch certification, according to Annex 16. Other MIA holders involved in the process may access batch documentation for their respective needs and responsibilities, as detailed in the written agreements. A risk assessment is needed to justify the frequency for the review of the full batch documentation at the site responsible for QP certification/confirmation; the so established periodicity should be included in the PQS.

Annex 21 also lists the type of documents that should be available at the importation sites, including the details of transportation and receipt of the product, and relevant ordering and delivery documentation. This last one should specify the site of origin of the product, the one of physical importation and shipping details (including transportation route, temperature monitoring records, and customs documentation). Appropriate documentation should be also available to confirm reconciliation of the quantities of batches which underwent subdivision and were imported separately.

Requirements set forth in Chapter 4 of the GMPs apply to the retention of the documentation; the availability at the third country manufacturing site of an adequate record retention policy equivalent to EU requirements shall be assessed by the site responsible for QP certification. Should it be appropriate, translations of original documents and certificates should be provided to improve understanding.