transportation Archives - European Industrial Pharmacists Group (EIPG)

The drug shortage situation - EIPG's point of view

by Maurizio Battistini The shortage of medicines has been a major concern in the countries of the European Union, and elsewhere, for more than 10 years, so much so that the Economic Community has devoted a great deal of effort Read more

EP’s draft position on Unitary SPC and SPC Regulation revision

by Giuliana Miglierini The Committee for Legal Affairs (JURI) of the European Parliament released the draft amendments to the Commission’s proposals aimed to establish a Unitary Supplementary Protection Certificate (SPC) (links to the document and to the procedure) and to Read more

Reactions to the proposed ban of PFAS

by Giuliana Miglierini A proposal to ban around 10,000 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) was submitted in January 2023 to the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) by authorities of Germany, Denmark, the Netherlands, Norway, and Sweden. The proposal was published on Read more

PIC/S new guidance documents for GDP inspectors

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By Giuliana Miglierini

Two new guidance documents for GDP inspectors have been issued by the Pharmaceutical Inspection Cooperation Scheme (PIC/S) Expert Circle on GDP, and are available on the PIC/S’ website.

The ‘AideMemoire on the Inspection of Good Distribution Practice for Medicinal Products in the Supply Chain’ (PI 0441) and a ‘Questions & Answers (Q&A) document regarding the PIC/S GDP Guide’ (PS/INF 22/2017) both entered into force on 1 February 2023.

Main contents of the AideMemoire

The AideMemoire aims to support GDP inspectors in the understanding the process of GDP inspections. The document is expected to be used for training and planning of inspections. Its adoption is voluntary, as the PIC/S GDP Guide for inspections is a legally nonbinding document unless it has been declared a legal standard in the jurisdiction of a PIC/S Participating Authority. The AideMemoire addresses inspections in wholesale distribution sites of entities holding a wholesale distribution licence according to national legislation (i.e. including importing, exporting, holding, or supplying distributors), as well as manufacturers performing any distribution activities. GDP inspections should be thorough and conducted under normal operating conditions.

The AideMemoire is organised in the form of 10 tables that could be used by inspectors as check lists of items to be investigated during inspections of manufacturers and wholesale distributors.

The first table addresses general aspects of GDP inspections, such as the accuracy of the Licence/ application in detailing relevant activities and products. Lists of prescription only medicines (POM), sales without prescription (P), or General sales list/Over the counter (GSL) products are some examples, together all other possible items that may be handled by wholesales distributors, including medical gases, products requiring storage at low temperature and controlled drugs according to national laws.

Preliminary activities also include the review of previous inspections and the assessment of corrective/preventative actions (CAPAs) outlined in the company response. Change should also be verified, namely in the case of high risk operations that may affect the risk profile of the organisation.

Table 2 lists items referred to Quality management. Inspectors should check, for example, the availability of procedures and logs for change control and deviation management. Quality Risk Management (QRM) principles should have been applied to outsourced activities, leading to the definition of specific activities falling under GDP rules, approval, auditing of suppliers, etc. An appropriate procedure should be available also for activities referring to Management review and monitoring and QRM.

Issues referring to personnel are discussed in table 3. An organisation chart and job descriptions should be available, the latter reflecting also key responsibilities and indication of Designated Responsible Persons. Inspectors should verify GDP training received by personnel, also with reference to specific aspects such as falsified medicines or temperaturesensitive products. Availability of a regular GDP training programme and training records should be checked. Personnel should have received specific training in SOPs relevant to their role, to be adequately assessed and documented. These should also include aspects relative to health, hygiene and clothing requirements.

The check list referred to Premises and Equipment is detailed in table 4. It includes among others items reflecting segregation requirements (e.g. identification, design and management of segregation areas) for hazardous or radioactive products, falsified medicines, products not authorised for the approved market, expired products, etc.

Cleaning and pest control procedures are also addressed in this section, as well as temperature and environmental controls and the appropriate monitoring of fridge or cold storage conditions. As for the equipment, inspectors should verify planned maintenance and calibration and their respective records. Alarms should also be checked, as well as computerised systems including validation, security and access restrictions. Appropriate qualification and validation procedures should be in place for all relevant equipment according to QRM principles, and risk assessment should be also available.

Table 5 lists all items referring to documentation management, including procedures and records. The qualification and approval of suppliers and customers according to QRM principles is addressed in Table 6, discussing Operations. This section also addresses the availability of goods receipts to be checked against purchase orders, including details of the temperature conditions during transportation and checks at receipt for products with special storage requirements or nonconforming products. Stock rotation according to the First Expiry First Out principle (FEFO) should be verified by inspectors, among items referred to storage. Aspects referring to the security of the premises also fall under this section, as well as the destruction of expired/ obsolete goods. Inspectors should address also picking operations, supply notes and records and procedures for import/export.

Table 7 refers to the management of complaints, returns, suspected falsified medical products and recalls, which should all be handled according to relevant procedures. Requirements and documentation to be verified for outsourced activities are listed in table 8. These include for example the availability of quality agreements, and contracts including clear responsibilities and audits schedules.

Procedures, plans and records referring to selfinspections are listed in table 9. Items to be verified by GDP inspectors include among others the selection of auditors, their training and independence, CAPAs implementation and verification. The last table addresses issues relative to transportation, including planning, outsourcing, temperature monitoring, GDP training of drivers, etc.

Q&As on PIC/S GDP Guide (PE 0111)

The second document published by PIC/S consists in a list of Questions & Answers specifically referred to the PIC/S GDP Guide (PE 0111). Contents are organised in the form of a table detailing the relevant chapter number and title, paragraph number, question and answer. The latter also make reference to other paragraphs of the GDP Guide to be considered. The sequence of topics is similar to that of the previously examined guidance document for inspectors.

Questions referred to Chapter 1 address issues referred to Quality management and Quality system, outsourced activities, management review and monitoring. Effectiveness of the QS, for example, may be measured by inspectors with reference to deviations and CAPA analysis or to the impact of QRM functions. Frequency of periodic review and responsibilities for ensuring GDP compliance of outsourced activities are also addressed.

Personnel and definition of responsibilities, including key positions and delegation, are detailed in Chapter 2, while Q&As referred to Premises and Equipment go deeper in contents of Chapter 3 (i.e. including the definition of “acceptable temperature limits” and use of Mean Kinetic Temperature for monitoring).

The following chapters and related Q&As address the proper management of Documentation (Ch. 4) and Operations (Ch. 5). The later details some aspects of suppliers and customers qualification, storage, picking. The management of complaints, returns and particular categories of medicinal products refers to Chapter 6. As for outsourced activities (Ch. 7), Q&As addresses onsite auditing, while selfinspections are treated in Chapter 8. Q&As referred to Transportation (Ch. 9), for example, refer to national legislations as for the need for the transportation company to hold a wholesaler licence.

The new Annex 21 to GMPs

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by Giuliana Miglierini

The new Annex 21 to GMPs (C(2022) 843 final) that EIPG gave a significant contribution in reviewing the original draft and thoroughly presented it within a webinar to its members on August 2020, was published by the European Commission on 16 February 2022; the document provides a guideline on the import of medicinal products from extra-EU countries. The new annex will entry into force six months after its publication, on 21 August 2022. Its contents should be read in parallel with the EU Guide to Good Manufacturing Practice for Medicinal Products and its other annexes, those requirements continue to apply as appropriate.

Annex 21 details the GMP requirements referred to human, investigational and/or veterinary medicinal products imported in the European Union and European Economic Area (EEA) by holders of a Manufacturing Import Authorisation (MIA). The new Annex does not apply to medicinal products entering the EU/EEA for export only, as they do not undergo any process or release aimed to place them on the internal market. Fiscal transactions are also not considered as a part of the new annex.

The main principles

According to Annex 21, once a batch of a medicinal product has been physically imported in a EU/EEA country, including clearance by the custom authority of the entrance territory, it is subject to the Qualified Person (QP) certification or confirmation. Manufacturing operations in accordance with the marketing authorisation or clinical trial authorisation can be run on imported bulk and intermediate products prior to the QP certification/confirmation. To this regard, all importation responsibilities for both medicinal products and bulks/intermediates must be carried out at specific sites authorised under a MIA. These include the site of physical importation and the site of QP certification (for imported medicinal products) or QP confirmation (for bulk or intermediate products undergoing further processing).

Marketing authorisation holders (MAHs) for imported products authorised in the EU remain in any case the sole responsible for placing the products in the European/EEA market. Annex 21 requires sites responsible for QP certification to verify an ongoing stability program is in place at the third country site where manufacturing is performed. This last one has to transmit to the QP all the information needed to verify the ongoing product quality, and relevant documentation (i.e. protocols, results and reports) should be available for inspection at the site responsible for QP certification. QP’s responsibilities also extend to the verification that reference and retention samples are available in accordance to Annex 19 of the GMPs, and that safety features are placed on the packaging, if required.

Importation sites should be adequately organised and equipped to ensure the proper performance of activities on imported products. More specifically, a segregated quarantine area should be available to store the incoming products until the occurrence of release for further processing or QP certification/confirmation.

European GMP rules or equivalent standards shall be followed for the manufacturing of medicinal products in third countries due to be imported in the EU. The manufacturing process has to comply to the one described in the Marketing Authorisation (MA), the clinical trial authorization (CTA) and the relevant quality agreement in place between the MAH and the manufacturer. The respect of EU GMP rules or equivalent standards should be documented through regular monitoring and periodic on-site audits of the third country manufacturing sites, to be implemented by the site responsible for QP certification or by a third party on its behalf.

The QP of the importation site is also responsible for the verification of testing requirements, in order to confirm the compliance of the imported products to the authorised specifications detailed in the MA. The verification of testing requirements can be avoided only in the case a Mutual Recognition Agreement (MRA) or an Agreement on conformity assessment and acceptance of industrial products (ACAA) is in place between the European Union and the third country where the production of the medicinal product is located.

All agreements between the different entities involved in the manufacturing and importation process, including the MAH and/or sponsor, should be in the written form, as indicated by Chapter 7 of the EU GMP Guide.

The Pharmaceutical Quality System of the importing site

According to the European legislation (Chapter 1 of the EU GMP Guide), all activities performed in the EU with reference to the manufacturing and distribution of pharmaceutical products should fall under to umbrella of the company’s Pharmaceutical Quality System (PQS). This is also true for sites involved with importation activities, those PQS should reflect the scope of the activities carried out. A specific procedure should be established to manage complaints, quality defects and product recalls.

More in detail, the new Annex 21 establishes that sites responsible for QP certification of imported products (including the case of further processing before export with the exception of investigational medicinal products) have to run periodic Product Quality Reviews (PQR). In this case too, the respective responsibilities of the parties involved in compiling the Reviews should be specified by written agreements. Should the sampling of the imported product be conducted in a third country (in accordance with Annex 16 of the GMPs), the the PQR should also include an assessment of the basis for continued reliance on the sampling practice. A review of deviations encountered during transportation up to the point of batch certification should be also available, and a comparison should be run to assess the correspondence of analytical results from importation testing with those listed by the Certificate of Analysis generated by the third country manufacturer.

Full documentation available at MIA sites

The QP’s certification/confirmation step for an imported batch has to be paralleled by the availability of the full batch documentation at the corresponding MIA holder’s site; in case of need, this site may also have access to documents supporting batch certification, according to Annex 16. Other MIA holders involved in the process may access batch documentation for their respective needs and responsibilities, as detailed in the written agreements. A risk assessment is needed to justify the frequency for the review of the full batch documentation at the site responsible for QP certification/confirmation; the so established periodicity should be included in the PQS.

Annex 21 also lists the type of documents that should be available at the importation sites, including the details of transportation and receipt of the product, and relevant ordering and delivery documentation. This last one should specify the site of origin of the product, the one of physical importation and shipping details (including transportation route, temperature monitoring records, and customs documentation). Appropriate documentation should be also available to confirm reconciliation of the quantities of batches which underwent subdivision and were imported separately.

Requirements set forth in Chapter 4 of the GMPs apply to the retention of the documentation; the availability at the third country manufacturing site of an adequate record retention policy equivalent to EU requirements shall be assessed by the site responsible for QP certification. Should it be appropriate, translations of original documents and certificates should be provided to improve understanding.